前段時間小編在本網發布《如何制造出更高一級精度的機床之“絕對平面”篇》之后,獲得了不少熱心網友的評論。于是乎小編在整理了更多相關資料后,為大家奉上《如何制造出更高一級精度的機床之“測量儀器”篇》,就機床制造過程中涉及到的測量問題進行闡述,如有不足,歡迎廣大網友進行補充。

Some time ago, xiao xiaobian in our website "how to create a higher precision machine tool" absolute plane "after a number of enthusiastic comments. So small make up after finishing more related information to you on how to create a higher accuracy of machine tool "measuring instrument" article ", is involved in the process of machine tool manufacturing elaborates the

測量在機床制造的過程中可謂是貫穿全程,無論是配件制造、機床組裝,還是檢測精度、安裝調試,都離不開測量這一環節。在測量中,任何一種測量的精密程度高低都只能是相對的,皆不可能達到絕對精確,總會存在有各種原因導致的誤差。要使測量結果準確可靠、盡量減少誤差,提高測量精度,就必須充分認識測量儀器的重要性。

precision. There will always be errors caused by various reasons. In order to make the measurement result accurate and reliable, minimize the error and improve the measurement precision, the importance of measuring instrument must be fully recognized.

要設計制造一臺比現有精度更高的機床,零部件肯定得用現有的機床制造。從設計之初,就要考慮到各部分的公差跟配合,應力和變形,以及熱影響和磨損,只要有圖紙,想盡辦法造出零件,合理裝配就不是難事了。要從現有機床所加工出的零件中,挑選出符合更高要求的零件產品,這就需要人借助高級量具,選擇出那些零件,來裝配出更高精度等級的機床。

It has been reported that tsinghua university has designed and installed an optical mirror ultra-precision processing machine tool, which can process optical mirrors up to 880mm in diameter. They produced a surface roughness of 5 nanometres and a diameter of 400 millimetres on hard aluminium, and a non-spherical surface with a diameter of 100 millimetres and a surface

曾有報道稱,看到清華大學設計裝配了一個光學鏡面超精密加工機床,最大能加工直徑為880毫米的光學鏡面。他們在硬鋁上加工出了表面粗糙度5納米,直徑400毫米球面,用無氧銅加工出了直徑100毫米,表面粗糙度8納米的非球形面。注意,這里表面粗糙度的單位是只有微米千分之一的納米了,8納米只相當于20個水分子一字排開那么長。能夠加工出表面粗糙度如此精細的球面,這其中一定離不開各類高端精密檢測儀器的輔助。
隨著時代的進步,越來越多的精密檢測儀器開始在機床領域大顯神威。有觀點稱“檢測工具決定精度極限”,只有更高一級的測量工具,才能檢測出機床零件和機床加工成品的精度。只有機床各部分零件的精度都得到提升,所組裝起來的機床精度才會更上一層樓,這是得到一臺更高精度機床的根本所在。

With the progress of The Times, more and more precision testing instruments began to show great power in the field of machine tools. It is said that "testing tools determine the precision limit". Only a higher measuring tool can detect the precision of machine tool parts and machine tool processed products. Only when the precision of each part of the machine tool is improved, the precision of the machine tool assembled will be further improved

有了高精度的零件,還需要精準的裝配才行。作為一臺機床,假設它的加工精度在萬分之一毫米級別的情況下,那機床的零件本身誤差是要控制在十萬分之一毫米的,最后在裝配過程中一點一點的由裝配工人調試裝配好。裝配是一個很漫長的過程,可能在一個零件上就要拆裝幾十遍,裝完檢測,不合格再返工,再檢測,再返工,直至最后檢測通過,再進行下一步零件的安裝。等到所有零件都裝配完畢后,還要進行整機檢測,如果精度達不到,又要重復枯雜無味而不得不細心謹慎的檢測工作。

assuming its machining accuracy in the case of one over ten thousand of a millimeter level, the error is to control the machine tool parts itself in one over one hundred thousand of a millimeter, the last bit by bit in the process of assembly debugging assembled by assembly workers. Assembly is a very slow process, which may be on a part to dissect dozens of times, complete the testing, unqualified to rework again, again detection, rework again, until the

當以上所有步驟都完成后,我們才能通過更多其他的“手段”來進一步提升機床精度,而這些“手段”或多或少也離不開“測量”一詞。例如光柵尺、機床測頭、激光干涉儀等設備,都是通過實時測量來提升機床的精度,從而使得加工出來的物品精度達到更高要求。

testing, unqualified to rework again, again detection, rework again, until the last test pass, then the next step the installation of parts. After all the parts are assembled, the whole machine shall be tested. If the accuracy cannot be reached, the inspection work shall be repeated, dull and dull, and careful and careful.

 

 

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